The latter provision gives the courts considerable leeway. However, due to the novelty of this provision and the concept of disclosure of documents in German civil proceedings, there is little case law as to how best to protect confidential information in German disputes. In the introduction of Article 87b (7) ARC, the German legislator referred to an existing concept of protection of trade and business secrets in intellectual property disputes, known as the «Dusseldorf Trial». This process consists of two main steps. First, an expert has access to (potentially) confidential information to advise on the threat of a breach of trade and business secrets. Second, the expert`s opinion is then (i) forwarded to the party whose confidential interests are at stake, and (ii) to the legal assistance of the other party, who cannot disclose its contents to his client, in order to give him the opportunity to make comments on privacy interests. To the extent that the notice contains confidential information, the court, after hearing the parties, may decide not to hand over the entire notice to the opposing party, but only an edited copy. A confidentiality ring is a disclosure measure in which the public party provides only certain categories of information, including confidential information, to certain categories of persons. According to the communication, it can be effective: however, no measures are yet known in Italian procedures, as it has recently been put in place, such as the establishment of «confidentiality loops» or the appointment of experts for access to data and information considered confidential. Therefore, the communication should provide useful guidance on how and within what limits the measures set out in this communication will be taken by the courts. Members of the privacy network may, depending on the nature of the confidential information, go from external consultants to the parties (for example. B external legal advisors or other advisors) to in-house counsel and/or other business representatives.